Table of Contents
Introduction – What is a Trup?
What is a Trup: TRUP its full form is Thyroid Hormone Receptor Uncoupling Protein and the thyroid hormones are secret by the thyroid gland, which locates in front of the neck. These hormones are integral in regulating many functions and aspects of the human body, such as temperature regulation, energy levels, weight, hair, nail growth, and more.
What are the Thyroid hormones? – What is a Trup?
The thyroid gland produces two hormones:
- Triiodothyronine (T3)
- Thyroxine (T4)
- Triiodothyronine (T3)
The thyroid gland produces T3 and in other tissues via the removal of iodine from Thyroxine (T4).
- Thyroxine (T4)
This gland also produces T4 under the regulation of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. It is secreted into the bloodstream and travel to organs such as the kidney and liver. Here, thyroxine is converted into its active form – triiodothyronine.
What are the Functions of Thyroid Hormones?
Thyroid hormone (TH/T3) exerts many of its effects on energy metabolism by affecting gene transcription. However, although this is an important target for T3, only a limited number of T3-responsive genes have been identified and study. Among these, the genes for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) have attracted the interest of scientists. Although the role of UCP1 seems quite well established, uncertainty surrounds the physiological function of the recently discovered UCP1 analogs, UCP2 and UCP3.
- Thyroid hormone help with brain development and function
- It also helps with muscle control as well as bone health
- Regulates the metabolic rate of the body
- It also regulates metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate
- Thyroid hormones also help protein synthesis
- Increases the body’s sensitivity to catecholamine
- Essential for the development and differentiation of cell
- Energy intake needs to match energy expenditure to maintain a stable body weight. Many factors contribute to this stability, including genetic, physiological and behavioral factors.
- From a thermodynamic point of view, the animal is considered a thermodynamic system. We can state that when a system’s ‘energy potential’ does not change, all the energy expended in a system’s transformation appears.
- ultimately, as heat, it may be measured either as oxygen consumption
Where and What Does the Thyroid Gland do?
The thyroid gland locates at front of the neck, just below Adam’s apple (larynx). It is butterfly-shape and consists of two lobes on either side of windpipe (trachea). A normal thyroid gland is usually outwardly visible or felt if finger pressure is apply to the neck.
The thyroid gland produce hormone that regulate the body metabolic rate controlling heart, muscle and digestive function, brain developing and bone maintenance. so, it correct functioning depend on good supply of iodine from diet. Cells producing thyroid hormones are specialized in extracting and absorbing iodine from the blood and incorporating it into the thyroid hormones.
What is a Thyroid Hormone Receptor?
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are nuclear receptors that control transcription, thereby affecting TRs are an important regulator many basic physiological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and cardiac function.
Two thyroid hormone receptor (THR) proteins have been describe, THRα and THRβ; these receptors are encoded by the THRA and THRB genes, respectively.
The Receptors in the Thyroid
Retinoic acid receptors are locates in the nucleus and commonly form complexes with steroid hormone receptors to regulate the production of essential gene products.
Who Tell the Thyroid to Produce and Release Hormone?
The signal comes from a small gland at the bottom of our brain called the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland produces and send out a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and TSH then tells the thyroid gland how many hormones to produce and secrete. Your blood’s TSH levels rise and fall depending on your body’s need to make more or fewer thyroid hormone.
There is third actor involve communicate. The pituitary gland respond either directly to thyroid hormones in the blood. Still, it also respond to signal from the hypothalamus, which sit above the pituitary gland part of your brain. The hypothalamus release thyrotropin-release hormone (TRH), and TRH, in turn, stimulate the release of TSH in pituitary, which then signal you.
This whole network is also refer to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT), and it adapt to metabolic change and your body’s need.
Functions of Hormone Receptor – What is a Trup?
- Receptors are nerve ending your body which react to change and stimuli and make your body respond in particular way.
- Therefore, function as hormone-activated transcription factors and thereby act by modulating gene expression.
- In contrast to steroid hormone receptors, thyroid hormone receptors bind DNA without hormone, usually leading to transcriptional repression.
- Hormone receptors are proteins that bind hormones. Once attached, the hormone/receptor complex initiates a cascade of cellular effects resulting in some modification of physiology and behaviour.
- Hormones usually require receptor binding to mediate a cellular response.
Why is Uncoupling Important? – What is a Trup?
It play a role in normal physiology, as in cold condition being present or greatly reduce metabolic, because the energy generate heat instead of producing ATP because, some plant species use the heat generate by uncoupling proteins for special purposes.
Uncoupling proteins are mitochondrial carrier proteins which can gradually vanish proton gradient of inner mitochondrial membrane and also this uncoupling process reduce amount of ATP generate through oxidation of fuels.
Uncoupling Increases Respiration And Oxygen Consumption
You are adding an uncouple (FCCP), which creates a short circuit of protons on the inner mitochondrial membrane, reducing the proton motive force and allowing you to increase the degree of cellular respiration. In this state, substrate oxidation is the main predictor of oxygen consumption.
The leak of protons through UCP1 uncouples substrate oxidation from phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, leading to immediate oxygen consumption and heat production.
HUP: Hermogenes or uncoupling protein (UCP) is a 33kDa dimeric protein found in inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipose tissue which supply heat by allowing the dissipation of proton gradient without ATP synthesis.
Patients with diseases that may affect the thyroid functions (e.g. chronic liver and kidney diseases, malabsorption syndrome, ….etc.). They take medications that affect thyroid gland functions (e.g. amiodarone, glucocorticoids, etc.). So, patients with history, investigations or treatment suggestive of thyroid gland diseases. Hence, ischemic heart disease and any cardiac surgical interventions (e.g. open heart surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent, etc.). Therefore, patients with any valvular heart diseases were exclude from this study.